Developing a 55+ BTE Commercial Heavy-Duty Opposed-Piston Engine without a Waste Heat Recovery System
Heavy-Duty-, On- und Off-Highway-Motoren 2016
11. Internationale MTZ-Fachtagung
Referent(in): Dr. Neerav Abani, Michael Chiang, Isaac Thomas, Nishit Nagar, Rodrigo Zermeno
Heavy-duty vehicles, currently the second largest source of fuel consumption and carbon emissions
are projected to be fastest growing mode in transportation sector in future. There is a clear need to
increase fuel efficiency and lower emissions for these engines. The Achates Power Opposed-Piston
Engine has the potential to address this growing need. In this paper, results are presented for a 9.8L
three-cylinder OP Engine that shows the potential of achieving 55% brake thermal efficiency (BTE),
while simultaneously satisfying emission targets for tail pipe emissions. The Achates Power OP Engines
are inherently 20% more cost effective. The OP Engine architecture can meet this performance
without the use of waste heat recovery systems or turbo-compounding and hence is the most cost
effective technology to deliver this level of fuel efficiency.
The Achates Power OP Engine employs currently available engine components, such as supercharger,
turbocharger and after-treatment and features a uniquely designed piston bowl shape to enhance
mixing with a swirl-to-tumble conversion as the piston bowls approach minimum volume. This
design improves fuel-air mixing and hence, results in low soot values, higher indicated thermal efficiency
(ITE) due to better combustion phasing because of faster mixing controlled combustion and
lower NOx due to lower fueling requirement because of two-stroke and more efficient combustion system.
The OP Engine has a lower heat transfer loss due to the inherent design of the combustion
chamber, which provides lower surface area-to-volume ratio compared to a conventional engine. This
results in further benefits of reduction in fuel consumption and green house gases (GHGs).
The Achates Power OP Engine also makes use of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) by using
an optimized design of intake and exhaust ports that improves scavenging. This reduces engine-out
NOx along with lower requirement of flowing external EGR and hence reduction in pumping requirement.
1-D and 3-D-CFD models developed for the analysis were correlated to the Achates Power
4.9L OP Engine dynamometer measured data. The correlated models were used as tools to make
predictions for the 9.8L heavy-duty engine. The optimized system include high trapped compression
ratio piston bowl, ports design to provide best scavenging performance, thermal barrier coating on
piston bowls and dual injector with having an optimized spray pattern layout. Results show that the OP
Engine results in a BTE of 55%, while meeting stringent emission standards without the use of expensive
waste heat recovery systems and/or turbo-compounding components. The Achates Power OP
Engine offers a solution to the automotive industry in providing a commercially viable, highly efficient
and clean heavy-duty diesel engine that will reduce GHGs and carbon footprint for heavy-duty vehicles
such as Class 8 trucks.
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