Analysis of the influence of different common rail injector concepts on injection and mixture formation in a high-pressure /high-temperature spray chamber and a single cylinder research engine
Heavy-Duty-, On- und Off-Highway-Motoren 2016
11. Internationale MTZ-Fachtagung
Referent(in): Martin Drescher, Fabian Pinkert, Bert Buchholz
New emission limits demand the continuous research and optimization of the inner engine processes.
The injection and mixture formation is a significant factor for the diesel combustion and the formation
of emissions and as such it is the object of ongoing study. For evaluating the potential of different injector
concepts an investigation was performed at the FVTR GmbH with the collaboration of the Chair
of Piston Machines and Internal Combustion Engines at the University of Rostock. Three injectors
were thoroughly tested on a single cylinder engine and a high-pressure high-temperature injection
chamber. The injectors are modern common-rail injectors with a maximum injection pressure of 2200
bar. For the purpose of comparing the raw injector performance and correlating it to spray measurements,
the engine was operated without EGR and at a constant charge air temperature of 50 °C.
Charge pressure and rail pressure were varied while keeping the center of combustion constant.
Spray measurements were performed with different injection quantities, corresponding to part load
and full load at the engine. The two load settings chosen for the injector comparison also represent a
partial (ballistic) needle lift and a full needle lift respectively. While at the full load point a stationary
spray was able to develop, the part load point represents a transient spray pattern. The chamber features
a 300 mm diameter quartz glass window allowing the observation and analysis of all spray jets.
A schlieren-scatter light measurement setup is used to simultaneously visualize the liquid phase as
well as the evaporated, gaseous phase of the fuel spray.
This study shows that the spray measurements provide an explanation for behaviour seen in engine
measurements and validate the tendencies of the injector and nozzle performance. Through the detailed
results obtained from the spray chamber, a broader basis for decision making is giving to the
injector or engine manufacturer. The strategic approach for an optimization of the injection system and
the combustion process can be aimed in the right direction as opposed to the trial and error method
employed when engine tests are the only means of injector analysis.
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