Case Study – China’s regulatory impact on electric mobility development and the effects on power generation and the distribution grid
Netzintegration der Elektromobilität
1. Internationale ATZ-Fachtagung
Markets / Märkte
Referent(in): Guiping Zhu, State key lab of power system, Electrical Engineering Department, Tsinghua University,Beijing, 100084, China
Co-Autor(en): Christoph Tomoki Hein, Qiao Ding; Electric and Electronics Engineering Division, BMW China Service Ltd., Beijing, 100027,China
China introduced in 2009 a new vehicle category of New Energy Vehicles (NEV) to lead the automotive industry towards electrification. Since then, NEV sales increases year by year, with the governmental aim of 5 million NEV in the domestic market by 2020. In order to keep pace with the market growth and to deal with the massive charging demand, a big number of charging points have to be deployed in China. Both targets are supported by national and local regulations, incentive and subsidy policies. The first part of the research focuses on the current status, national NEV targets and charging infrastructure by pointing out the key policies supporting the growth of the market.
Within all categories of NEV, Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV, or EV for short) have the greatest charging power demand.
Therefore, a case study about EV charging impacts on power grid in Beijing was carried out in this paper. Considering the randomness of charging start time and daily mileage of EV, an EV charging model was built-up by utilizing Monte Carlo method based on survey results including working time, off-work time, daily mileage, electricity prices and preferred charging modes. Daily EV charging curves with any-time charging mode were derived for 2020, 2025 and 2030 applying a forecast of the future EV stock. Overlapped with the original local power load, EV charging impacts on the power grid were evaluated.
Analysis results showed that massive charging of electric vehicles with any-time charging mode will obviously level up the load peak of the grid. Consequently a distribution network upgrade will be required, which is not beneficial to promote a quick development of the EV market. Thus time-delayed charging and orderly charging were proposed in this paper to meet charging power demand without additional requirements to upgrade the grid. Simulation results in Beijing verified the effectiveness of the orderly charging method.
As a conclusion, suggestions on technologies and policies for EV charging were given. Orderly charging is the ideal charging method which can make full use of the power grid capacity to charge as many EV as possible. However it relies on bi-directional communication between the vehicle and the distribution grid, thus time-delayed charging is hopefully to be popularized in current distribution networks, while orderly charging can be expected with the development of smart grid structures in the future.
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